Japanese Verb Transformation

The last meeting we study about kanji, memorize the figure of kanji, practices how to write the characters and make new noun/place with kanji. Now we study about verb, in this level we must study hard, why? It’s because the sensei? The course material or the time of course ?, yeah..all of the previous reason are the background for the student to be better to their study.
OK, we start to identify the typical of verb, in 2th level we was study how to use masu and mashita Masu is familiar used to explain the future activity, and Mashita common used to explain the past activity. We can figured as bellow

Mashita |—————-[Now {Te} ] —————–| Masu

the third level we will study how to use the present activity, in above we can saw the Now or Te Verb, in japanese called “Te key”. There are have one convention how to change verb from basic mean (jisho key) to Masu(ます), Te(て) or Mashita(ました). We just take a look for characters before Masu(ます), and then check the transformation bellow.


1.Godandoushi(ごだん でょうし) (Five change step), this verb has characteristics sounds, the generally sounds is “い”,
– The Godandhoushi separated in 5 step bellow:
a. Ki (き)→ Ku (Jisho key) → I te (Te Key)
b. Gi (ぎ)→ Gu (Jisho Key) → I de (Te key)
c. I (い), Chi(ち), Ri(り) → U (う), Tsu(つ) , Ru(る) (Jisho Key) → つて (tsu te)
d. Bi (び), Mi (み), Ni (に) –> Bu(ぶ), Nu(ぬ) , Mu (む) [Te key] –> んで

– Negative pattern for godan doushi
The last characters will changed to first coloumn of hiragana table (あ, か,さ, た, な, は, ま, ら, や )
and then we add “nai” ない after the sufixs, this is the example:

+ kikimasu –> ki(ki)[masu] –> ki(ka)+nai –> kikanai (not hearing)
+ kakimasu –> ka(ki)[masu] –> ka(ka)+nai –> kakanai (not write)

exception:

if there are have “I”(い) characters, the character subtitute is “wa” (わ), this is the example:

+ suimasu –> su(i)[masu] –> su(wa)+nai –> suwanai (すわない) (not smoking)
+ aimasu –> a(i)[masu] –> a(wa)+nai –> awanai (あわない) (not meet)

2.Ichidandoushi (いちだん)でょうし)(One change step)
this verb transformation have one characteristic sounds, this verb commonly use “e”(え) sound, the transformation just one step, look different than godan doushi, this is the pattern:
Te Key : Masu(ます) –> Te (て)
jisho key : Masu (ます) –> Ru (る)
example:

Tabemasu : tabe[masu] (たべます) –> tabe[te] (たべて) –> tabe[ru] (たべる)
Tsukaemasu: tsukae[masu](つかえます) –> tsukae[te] (つかえて) –> tsukae[ru] (つかえる)

-Negatif pattern for Ichidan doushi
masu (ます)–> Nai(ない)
example:

Tabemasu : tabe[masu] (たべます) –> tabe[nai] (たべない)
Tsukaemasu: tsukae[masu](つかえます) –> tsukae[nai] (つかえない)

3.Fukishoku (ふきそく)(excepting)
this section will explain the excepting pattern out of two base pattern above, this is this pattern:
1. Kimasu (きます) –> Kite (きて) –> soru (そる)
2. …shimasu (。。。します) –> …shite(して) –> suru (する)

December 15, 2009