Automatic Leaf Motion Analysis Using Optical Flow To Diagnose Plant Behavior In Response To Environmental Changes

Abstract: We have proposed an automatic leaf motion analysis based on Infrared (IR) photography. The proposed system allows continuous, high-resolution time-lapse imaging, independent of the present of visible light, and based on open source platform. The utilization of microcomputer as a capturing unit might increase the simplicity and flexibility. The IR camera positioned above the plant as top view projection to capture the foliage images. As the motion tracking, the Optical Flow method was adopted, implementing the Lucas-Kanade technique with Shi-Tomasi corner detection. Optical flow is one of the motion detection methods to analyze the motion between two consecutive images by differentiating the constraint. Displacement distance and direction angle were used as a parameter for evaluation with regards to circadian rhythm. As the result, the proposed automatic leaf motion analysis could perform a continuous IR time-lapse photography and analyze the lateral 2D motion using the Optical Flow method. The highest probability of displacement distance observed at 6px (48%) and the direction angle was at 180° (39.2%). According to the visual appearance of time series data, the motion displacement seems to have a regular pattern resembles the circadian rhythm with regards to environmental changes although the noise also appears. To verify the relation between displacement distance, motion angle and circadian rhythm, analysis of phase and amplitude of data using a Fast Fourier Transform Nonlinear Least Squares (FFT-NLS) method will be in our future works.

Key Words: Plant motion, optical flow, leaf motion, circadian rhythm, motion analysis

Review: Case Studies Related to Intelligent Irrigation and Actuating System

This post will focus on case studies and method that already used to solve the problem in intelligent irrigation system with multi input for autonomous decision by the system.

1. Gims: A Web-based Greenhouse Intelligent Management System

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Author:

M.T. Maliappis, K.P. Ferentinos, H.C. Passam and A.B. Sideridis

Journal:

World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4 (5): 640-647, 2008 ISSN 1817-3047
Abstract:
This paper describes a system developed to introduce computer management into the cultivation process in low-tech greenhouses. The proposed system is implemented as a web-based application using open source technologies and subsystems comprised of modules that provide: (1) static information about the cultivation process and marketing of the supported crops, (2) simulation and forecast models of general interest, (3) a collaboration environment and (4) expert system capabilities and support. Modular construction of the system allows easy adaptation to new products and expansion into new languages. The centralized management of information and knowledge provides approved and better quality of services. Greenhouse Intelligent Management System (GIMS) is designed to provide personalized consultation to its users. The consultation process is guided by input data provided separately by each user. After an initial authentication, the user can interact with the system individually in a personalized environment. Each user has his/her own protected storage space where he/she can store his/her data separately from those of others. The system offers a way to supervise the cultivation process, maintain records of user activities and is able to transmit special alerts for necessary actions. The overall process is monitored by an intelligent decision support system which takes into consideration the data provided by the user, as well as the results of the special models and expert systems, so that specialized advice for each individual case is given. At the present stage of development the system provides support for three crops: tomato, pepper and aubergine.

Result and Conclusion:
This paper describe about development story of building web-based management system for greenhouse, ideal system, module that it should be exist on web-based management system, especially for greenhouse management.

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[CS] gim web based green house monitoring system

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2. Scheduling strawberry irrigation based upon tensiometer mesurement an a climatic water balance model

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Author:
Erika KruÈger
Journal:
Scientia Horticulturae 81 (1999) 409±424

Abstract
A field experiment was carried out over three cropping seasons with 1 year old strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. `Elsanta’ and `Honeoye’), where irrigation was scheduled based upon tensiometer measurements and a climatic water balance model. Both irrigation schedules were compared to the non-irrigated one. The influence on fruiting response, the impact on soil moisture tension, mineral nitrogen content in the soil and nitrogen content in the leaves were investigated. In all the years, irrigated plants had significantly higher yields than the non-irrigated ones. The mean fruit weight was also increased by irrigation. Optimization of irrigation was best achieved in both varieties when the climatic water balance model was used to schedule irrigation. During dry periods, soil moisture tension under non-irrigated strawberries increased to values above 300 hPa at 20 cm soil depth. In a year, with dry conditions and high evapotranspiration, maximum values above 700 hPa were reached. Differences in soil moisture were observed between the two irrigation schedules within and over the years of the experiment. The hydraulic gradients calculated from tensiometer measurements showed that in the periods with irrigation, percolation did not occur below 40 cm soil depth. Therefore, leaching of mineral nitrogen out of the rooted area of strawberries could be excluded for both irrigation schedules. The nitrogen level in dry leaf matter was not influenced by irrigation, except in one year when irrigation followed the climatic water balance model. The present study shows the potential to optimize the irrigation of strawberries using the climatic water balance model, which is less labour intensive and time consuming than tensiometer measurements. Besides the economical aspects, the results from the analysis of different soil parameters indicate that scheduling irrigation based upon this model was also environmentally safe.

Conclusion and Review:
This paper tell us about the influence of irrigation to plant and climate aspect (soi moisture content, hydraulic gradient,water balance, Nitrogen level). This paper shows the potential to optimize the irrigation of strawberries using the climatic water balance model, which is less labour intensive and time consuming than tensiometer measurements.

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[CS] scheduling straberrry irrigation baed upon tensiometer measurement and climatic water balance model

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3. A Study On Development Of Intelligent Irrigation Systems For Melon Cultivation In Greenhouse

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Author:
Kazuhiro Nakano
Journal:
AFITA 2002

Abstract:
The price of melon varies with its quality. It is very difficult to control the quality of melon in various growing stages, because irrigation management in a green house influences the fruit quality. In this study, the intelligent irrigation systems were developed using the know-how extracted from an expert. Fuzzy control and On-off control for irrigation were examined. Changes in soil moisture content were predicted by Fuzzy control systems with various climate sensors. As the results, the performances in Fuzzy control and On-off control were respectively 52% and 40% water saving compared to the manual irrigation by an expert. The qualities of fruits by Fuzzy control and On-off control were almost the same results from the manual irrigation.

Conclusion and Review

  1. Both the Fuzzy control area and On-off control area gave considerable water savings over the Manual-irrigation area, while both produced fruit of similar quality (sugar content and grade) to that in the Manual-irrigation area.
  2. The above shows that the present systems for automatic irrigation control of greenhouse melons are effective.
  3. No clear difference was seen between the Fuzzy control and On-off control areas.

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[CS] a study on development of intelligent irrigatio system for melon cultivation in green house

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Review: Cultivation of Strawberries, Case studies and Optimization for strawberry cultivars Amaou

In this post, author sought to gather information related to strawberry cultivation, especially type cultivars Amaou . The information including plant growth condition, optimum conditions, irrigation techniques and measurement of sugar content. This review post reviewed paper were collected from internet, some presented in english and the other in japanese. Furthermore, the information contained in this paper will be used as a reference in the preparation of monitoring and actuating system.

1. Local heating temperature effects on the growth and yield of strawberries [Fragaria] in high-bench culture

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Author:
Sato, K., Fukuoka-ken. Agricultural Research Center, Chikushino (Japan); Kitajima, N.
Journal:
Bulletin of the Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center (Mar 2010)
Abstract
For forcing culture of strawberries planted on high benches, local heating effects on growth and yield were examined. We heated crowns using an electrically heated wire touched to a crown. Because of local heating, plants became taller, leaf stalks lengthened, leaf width widened, the flowering date of axillary flower clusters was earlier, and leaf appearance was accelerated in a greenhouse where the lowest temperature was 8 deg C. Regarding the local heating temperature, growth promotion effects were significant for temperatures higher than 21degC. Furthermore, higher temperatures produced more significant growth-promotion effects. Growth promotion by local heating was more effective in ‘Toyonoka’ than ‘Amaou’ varieties. However, the ‘Amaou’ fruit weight and the ‘Toyonoka’ fruit number were lower at 25 deg C. These results show that local heating of the crown is effective for growth promotion and that 21degC might be a suitable heating temperature for use in forcing culture of strawberries.

Result:
1. Growth promotion by local heating was more effective in ‘Toyonoka’ than ‘Amaou’ varieties.
2. Local heating of the crown is effective for growth promotion
3. 21 degC might be a suitable heating temperature for use in forcing culture of strawberries .

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local heating29-06

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2. Effects of irrigation water with high concentrations of Na and HCO3 on yellowing of leaves and on yield of strawberry in bench culture

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Author:

Mizukami, K.(Fukuoka-ken. Agricultural Research Center, Chikushino (Japan)); Odahara, K.; Kaneko, A.

Journal:
Bulletin of the Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center (Mar 2009)

Abstract
Strawberry plants were grown with irrigation water that contained 100mg/l of Na and 200mg/l of HCO3 in bench culture with 1.4 to 1.7 l compost per stock. Under these conditions, yellowing of young leaves and browning of old leaf margins occurred from the middle of January. The yellowing of young leaves was judged to be attributable to a situation where an Mn deficiency symptom had resulted from an absorption restraint of Mn by antagonism of excessive absorption of Na and insolubilization of Mn with a rise in pH of the compost, which in turn had been brought about by a high concentration of HCO3. Mn content in leaves decreased remarkably when such irrigation water was used even if young leaves did not show the yellowing symptom. The decrease in yield from March to May and in total yield is considered to be a result of Mn deficiency restraining fruit enlargement. When Na concentration of irrigation water is lower than 50mg/l, the water may be suitable for strawberry ‘AMAOU’ production with bench culture.

Result:
Na concentration of irrigation water is lower than 50mg/l may be suitable for strawberry ‘AMAOU’ production with bench culture.

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Irrigation supply28-20

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3. Efficiency of Irrigation Method for Strawberries

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Author:

J Mestella Myers

Journal:
Florida state horticultural Society, 1972

Abstract:
Trickle, overhead sprinkler and fur row irrigation methods were compared in a straw berry production experiment. Rainfall during the season was above normal. Yield and size of fruit were not affected by irrigation method. Irrigation method was a significant factor with regards to movement of soluble salts in the bed. Movement of salts was towards the upper center part of the bed for the sprinkler and furrow methods, while significant movement was not detected for the trickle method. Soil moisture content in the rooting zone was maintained near field capacity on a continuous basis by the trickle method, while the sprinkler and furrow methods were effective in returning the soil moisture content to field capacity when applications were made, but this was followed by a gradual depletion to almost soil moisture level of the unirrigated treatment before the next application. Approximately one half the quantity of water was used for the trickle method as compared to the sprinkler and furrow methods.

Result and Conclusion

This research was conducted in Florida US, maybe quite different with strawberry cultivation in Japan. As information for us, soil moisture content in the rooting zone was maintained near field capacity on a continuous basis by trickle method, while the sprinkler and furrow methods were effective in returning the soil moisture content to field capacity when applications were made, but this was followed by a gradual depletion to almost soil moisture level of the unirrigated treatment before the next application.

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[BS] efficiency of irrigation methods for strawberries

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4. Effective CO2 enrichment regimes for yield increases  in high-bench strawberry  culture in northern kyushu.

[tab name=’General Information’]

Author:
Mizukami, K.(Fukuoka-ken. Agricultural Research Center, Chikushino (Japan)); Odahara, K.; Kaneko, A.
Journal:
Bulletin of the Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center (Mar 2009)

Result:

  1. No difference in growth and yield between treatments of 1000 ppm and 2000 ppm.
  2. When CO2 applied to amaou from 6:00 to 10:00 (November – march 10), compared with the control treatment
    • Flowering period occurred earlier after secondary fruit cluster
    • Quantity of fruit increased
    • Yield increased by 40% form February to March ad by May, total Increased 15%.
  3. The effective CO2 enrichment for a yield increase in amaou and saga honoka were 1000ppm applied once daily and 1000 ppm applied twice daily, respectively.

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Review: Intelligent Irrigation System for melon in green house

Abstract
The price of melon varies with its quality. It is very difficult to control the quality of melon in various growing stages, because irrigation management in a green house influences the fruit quality. In this study, the intelligent irrigation systems were developed using the know-how extracted from an expert. Fuzzy control and On-off control for irrigation were examined. Changes in soil moisture content were predicted by Fuzzy control systems with various climate sensors. As the results, the performances in Fuzzy control and On-off control were respectively 52% and 40% water saving compared to the manual irrigation by an expert. The qualities of fruits by Fuzzy control and On-off control were almost the same results from the manual irrigation.

[tab name=’General Information’]
Kazuhiro Nakano
Journal: AFITA
Year: 2002

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[tab name=’Review’]

Both the Fuzzy control area and On-off control area gave considerable water savings over the Manual-irrigation area, while both produced fruit of similar quality (sugar content and grade) to that in the Manual-irrigation area. The above shows that the present systems for automatic irrigation control of greenhouse melons are effective. Moreover, no clear difference was seen between the Fuzzy control and On-off control areas. In the future, it will be necessary to conduct cultivation experiments under different soil conditions, and then based on the results to improve the system and increase its general applicability

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intelligent irrigation sysytem in green house for melon