Lecture notes : Biological Resource Utilization and Conservation

[dropcap]W[/dropcap]inter 2012. Today is the last Biological resource utilization class, given by Dr. Yoshimura from laboratory Plant Breeding.  from him we learn much about breeding and biodiversity plant, especially paddy rice, as we know that rice is  staple food in south east asia. Dealing with another material, is will make simple resume here.

Chapter one

Conservation of Biodiversity and sustainable utilization of Biological Resources. This lecture given by Prof. Masami Takagi. This lecture covers Agricultural Ecology, pest in agricultural ecosystem, and Integrated pest management.  firstly we study about level in biological activity, classification related to Individu, Population, Community, Ecosystem and Biosphere. there are component in earth as general. we also consider about energy chain in flow ecosystem like our class given when we are study in elementary school or junior high school. sun is energy resource , using sunrise energy we can produce agricultural commodities and plant, from this lecture we also remember about simple agricultural ecosystem, called Natural Ecosystem.

Natural Ecosystem

–> Energy –> Sun –>  Producer (Plants) –> Consumer ( Animal ) –> Decomposer (Microbial) –> Loop

We study about agriculture system, as we know that agriculture growth specific field, using additional resources to increase production both quality and quantity. Natural system with additional component to increase production we called it Agricultural Ecosystem. Something that make it different are specific field and additional supporting component ( fertilizer, energy, pesticides). Important point that we should remember is the ideal system, agro ecosystem of intensive agriculture with chemical pest, is impossible.

Agricultural Ecosystem

Input –> Fertilizer, pesticides and Solar energy

Output –> Heat Energy, food , mineral and one important things: pollution

The third ecosystem that we study is urban ecosystem or modern ecosystem, This ecosystem represent ecosystem in urban area with complicated matters and high pollution.

Urban Ecosystem

Input –> Raw material, organic , food, fosil energy ( oil, coal, natural gas) and Solar Energy

Output –> Artificial chemical: water pollution, soil pollution, biological magnification, air polution

we also thinking about sustainability and decreasing soil fertility caused due to excess use of fertilizer and pesticides.

Among them, we consider about new method to enhance agriculture, dealing with agro-ecosystem including Integrated Pest Management. IPM is an ecologically based pest control strategy that relies heavily on natural mortality factor such as natural enemies and seeks out control tactics that disrupt these factors as small as possible. IPM uses pesticides, but only after systematic monitoring of pest populations and natural control factors indicators indicates a need. an IPM program considers:

  1. All available pest control action including no action
  2. Evaluate potential interaction among various control tactics
  3. Cultural practices
  4. Weather
  5. Other pest, and
  6. Crop tobe protected
Pest control method for IPM
  1. Chemical Control
  2. Host plant resistance
  3. Biological Control
    1. Classical biological control ( Introduction of natural enemies from foreign country)
    2. Augmentation of natural enemies
    3. Conservation of Natural enemies
  4. Physical Control
    1. Sticky trap, silver mulch, physical barrier, yellow illumination
  5. Cultural Control
    1. Crop rotation, Tillage practices
  6. use of pheromone
  7. Push pull strategy
Chapter two
This chapter entitled Utilization of Plant Resources, given by Prof. Okubo. This lecture introduce about variety of plant, including flower, crops, and cultivation. in this course, professor also teach about fundamental research and how to do research due to lack of facilities and funds, we were taught about flower variety, challenges in cultivation and how to do experiment related case mention.
Chapter Three 

This lecture about Mushroom Production and Biotechnology. we were taught about mushroom and it’s benefit for human, firstly the professor introduce many kind of mushroom, variety and how to cultivate it. Mushroom is very nutritious and  we can use traditional way or biotechnology to develop new mushroom. dealing with benefit of this plant, we are consider:

  1. Mushroom’s life ( how to cultivate )
  2. Mushroom for our Health
  3. Mushroom and Environment
  4. Mushroom in Industry

In addition to their fascination for the gourmet, mushrooms are also have several other uses (Chandy, Mushroom in human Life):

1. Tinder mushrooms Polyporus fomentarius or “tinder mushroom” sometimes called “Genllan tinder” was used in the manufacturing of tinder.

2. Tunbridge ware When green oak is attacked by Chloroplenium aeruginosum, the tissues become stained with green, giving a very pleasing effect. Wood so affected is used in the manufacturing of “Tunbridge ware” and fancy work.

3. Snuff Polyporus nigricans when dried and pounded is an ingredient in snuff.

4. Dyeing Polyporus bispidus which gives a brown dye is used for colouring silk, cotton and wool. This is used by leather dresser’s to give a fawn chestnut colur and by carpenters to give a brown colour to furniture. P. sulphureus gives a yellow colour and Fomes ignitarius gives a brown black colour. Many other mushrooms are also used for giving different colours.

5. Writing material Inky cap mushroom Caprinus comatus is very deliquecsent and soon becomes black liquid which can be used for writing purposes.

6. Mushrooms in Flower pots: Shaped fruit bodies of Polyporus fomentarius and P. ignitarius are used for flower pots. The tube portion is cut out and the hoofed portion is inverted and hanged. This serves as a receptacle for the soil in which plants are grown.

7. Luminosity: The ability of organism to produce light in the dark is well-known in bacteria, plants and animals. Many fungi are also luminescent and either the fruit body or mycelium or both may be luminous, depending on the species. Fome anosus is a luminous fungus which grows in mines and both mycelium and fruit bodies are luminous. Other light emitting species of mushroom are gills of Pleurotus joponica, Boletus edulis, Collybia longipes etc. The luminosity is often so bright that when brought near a printed page in the dark, words can be read.

8. Hallucination It is said, “the effect of creating hallucination is not to enable you to remember back, but rather to forget and to imagine you are otherwise than what you are”. The hallucinogenic mushrooms are Amanita muscaria, several spp. of stropharia and Psilocube.

9. Medicinal use: Lower fungi have yielded important medicines, like antibiotics from Penicillium (a common contaminant in mushroom cultivation). Mushrooms are much less used. Most of the medicinal extracts from mushrooms are polysaccharides. Although these differ in composition, they have one thing in common. All of these extracts are strengtheners of the immune system, with no or little side effects. A polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes, lentionin, is currently being marketed in Japan with great success.

10. Food value of mushroom Mushrooms have been treated as a special kind of food since earliest times. Chinese, Japanese, Romans, Mexican, American and Indians used mushrooms on special occasions like giving tribute to emperors, in religious ceremonies. Nowdays, the migrations of many millions of people with different food habits has spread the popularity of mushrooms.


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